Despite decades of effort to achieve inclusive education systems, the emphasis upon special education persists. This seminar explores the contradictory nature of policy, practice and theory which underpins these two concepts and considers how whether they can be brought together. It does this through the development of two models of Certainty and Doubt, which help to represent and create a platform for thinking about the emergence and perpetuation of these two contradictory impulses and how these contradictions might be resolved.  

Jonathan Rix  
Professor of Participation and Learning Support
Director of Research - School of Education, Childhood, Youth & Sport
Open University